You might be wondering why you would want to do what is predominantly lying-down exercise to benefit your standing-up and walking activity. Well, as you will see, there are many benefits to golfers from Pilates. Let’s start by discussing why Pilates is practiced and loved by Pro Golfers, as the stakes are so much higher for them and they will be sure to follow a fitness regime which protects their musculoskeletal system and improves their performance.
Lee Westwood practiced Pilates after developing nerve dysfunction and pins and needles his arm – he began practicing Pilates, lost a stone and regained control of his swing.
Tiger Woods believes that the physical conditioning he gets from Pilates gives him an advantage and extra gear.
Annika Sorenstam is very smart about how she exercises and trains. She can perform several hundred repetitions of strengthening for her “core” muscles every day without hurting herself. Not all of these repetitions are the typical abdominal crunches. She incorporates Pilates training into her workout for variety and to keep her workout safe.
Dave Duvall: “I’ve added yoga to my routine recently, and combining that with my Pilates programme gives me all of the cardiovascular workout I need. Pilates is a method of conditioning that involves hundreds of exercises designed to improve strength and flexibility without adding bulk.”
The golf swing produces a complex combination of joint mobility and stability along with highly controlled coordination of the whole body. Efficient coordination of multiple linked joints is needed to achieve an effective swing path. The golf swing involves a chain through the whole body, the connection from your feet into your calves, through your legs and into your torso, then down the arms into the club which finally connects with the ball. However, it is repeated frequently, think about how many times you repeat this movement throughout the course of a game. Therefore, even small errors at any point in the chain can cause injury through repetition of the same fault. An injury may not arise at the point where the problem is, for example a calf strain may actually be due to poor recruitment in the core and gluteals (bottom muscles), therefore the calf muscles are overused.
To give an example of the kinetic chain in action, here are the primary muscles which activate during the swing of a right-handed golfer:
Quads (front of the thigh) on the right side
Hamstrings (back of the thigh) on the left side
Adductors (inner thigh) on the left side
Glutes (bottom muscles) on the left side
Rectus abdominus (superficial abdominal muscle) on the right side
Obliques (middle abdominal muscles) left to right
Latissimus dorsi (back and shoulder) on the right side
Pectorals (chest) on the right side
Rotator cuff (shoulder muscles) right side
And that’s just the muscles around the torso, think also of the foot and calf muscles and the muscles down the arm and into the wrist which all play their role in stabilising and activating the swing.
As well as the individual muscles activating, there has to be good timing of the activation – control and coordination. There must be mobility in the joints underlying the muscles to allow these movements to take place effectively, for example, if the upper back does not have the rotation required to move through the full range of the swing, this can lead to problems elsewhere, like the low back and hips. This can be made worse by having poor control of the core muscles which stabilise the low back. The muscles themselves need the strength to generate the power to hit the ball at speed. As a golfer you also need great balance to ensure your body can cope with the demands of the swing.
Looking at the muscles involved above, it is clear that golf will develop one side of a muscle group more than the other. This in itself can cause problems by creating muscle imbalances which can cause problems within the game and in everyday life as well.
A poor swing can give rise to a number of different problems, it can also be caused by underlying problems. Firstly, many amateur golfers are self-taught, and while they may be able to get the ball from A to B, they may have picked up bad habits. They may over-correct (swing too far), this can worsen muscular imbalances, for example, poor core stability coupled with tightness in the rotator cuff.
Golf injuries are broadly categorised as either overuse or traumatic injury. An overuse injury may arise from a performance fault which often develop as a consequence of compensations for muscle imbalances, and restrictions of rotation or uncontrolled weight shifting. Often golfers are totally unaware of these problems as they are non-painful. However, repeating poor movement techniques can lead to injury and will certainly reduce performance.
The most common golf injuries are (in order or prevalence): low back pain, wrist, elbow and shoulder injuries. Low back pain has been quoted as accounting for between 25 and 54% of all injuries sustained in golf.
So, why practice Pilates as a golfer? In a nutshell, Pilates teaches you to use the deep muscles of the torso and effective breathing patterns to control the spine. Pilates helps you to learn to recruit the deep postural muscles, ensure every muscle is doing its job at the right time, it encourages good posture and improves flexibility and strength. All of these elements are required for good golf performance, preventing injury and improving function on and off the golf course.
Sports physician Vijay Vad worked on the PGA tour and suggested that pilates provides “tripod of benefits: 1.stamina, 2. power for distance, 3. injury prevention”.
For all round injury prevention, within yourself you can modify your fitness, flexibility, balance and core stability. Pilates can help with these. A golfer is also exposed to risks not related to individual fitness, such as the weather and playing surface and the weight and size of equipment. When carried over the five to six miles walked over a round of golf, any poorly fitting bag can become very uncomfortable, especially if it is a one-shoulder design. A trolley and clubs which are measured to fit you are a great investment to prevent any problems arising from carrying bags.
The consequences of imbalances of stability and mobility of muscles leads to altered swing path and ball flight, reduced power and distance and injury
It’s not all negative!!!! You can do things to help – some golfers go through their career injury free but majority experience some problems and it’s knowing how to cope with injury and most importantly how to stop them from happening in the first place.
Exercise 1 – Backswing:
Specific golf swing problems include backswing sway, where the golfer’s hands drift too far away from the body pulling the torso on the backswing.Too much lateral movement and the lack of balance that entails effects the flight path – slice or hook, neither are welcome! An inability to rotate the upper torso is detrimental to power generation (we’re not suggesting Rory suffers from this problem, he is demonstrating a great backswing above!) .
Corrective Pilates Exercise:
CORE TWIST WITH HIP ROTATON
Increases Rotatory motion of Torso
Beginner – spine twist in sitting with resistance band
Intermediate – working the shoulderblades by drawing a resistance band apart and twisting in high kneeling
Advanced – using body weight – plank to twist “sidebend into sidetwist”
Work into full range of motion
Exercise 2 – Follow Through:
Fault: Chicken Winging: Lifting the non-target elbow on backswing changes the angle of the club & swing path, smothers the ball or hitting the top due to shoulder girdle instability.
Corrective Pilates Exercise:
BOW AND ARROW
Stabilizes shoulder joint working through full range of motion
Strengthens the kinetic chain
- using magic circle pull ring to target side then opposite side sitting or standing
- using theraband pull on band like bow and arrow at the same time as rotating torso
Make sure abdominal muscles are recruited throughout.
Exercise 3 – Stance:
Fault: poor posture at address, manifesting as S-shape or C-shape posture. Excessive arching of the back causing pain, compression of muscles causing stress due to weak abdominals and gluteal muscles, tight low back and hip flexors.
Corrective Pilates Exercise:
Challenges stability of torso/pelvis/shoulders
First, find position and control on hands and knees
Beginner level: single arm or leg extension
Intermediate: extend both at the same time
Advanced: Progress with resistance band
Alignment and posture essential
Exercise 4 – Rotation for Swing:
Fault: Reduced rotation. Changes the angle of the body – poor swing pattern complicated by over compensation in other areas. Poor control and increased compressive forces result in low back pain and/or shoulder pain. This is due to reduced flexibility in thoracic (upper back) region and poor core control.
Corrective Pilates Exercise:
THREAD THE NEEDLE
Start in a neutral spine position in four point kneeling. As you breathe out bring one arm under the body and through the opposite arm and hold 5-10 seconds to feel the stretch. Then slowly raise the same arm out to the side above the head so you are rotating the opposite way and opening the chest. Hold 5-10 seconds to feel a stretch.
Alternate sides and repeat 5-10x each side.
If you have any questions about these exercises, please see your Pilates instructor.
Exercise images thanks to Darroch Photography